Prevalence of Sensorineural Hearing Loss and its Association with Glycemic Control in Filipino Patients with Diabetes at the Philippine General Hospital


  • Jerico Gutierrez Philippine General Hospital
  • Cecilia Jimeno Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Department of Medicine Philippine General Hospital
  • Patrick John Labra Department of Otorhinolaryngology Philippine General Hospital
  • Precious Eunice Grullo Department of Otorhinolaryngology Philippine General Hospital
  • Teresa Luisa Cruz Department of Otorhinolaryngology Philippine General Hospital Philippine National Ear Institute National Institutes of Health


sensorineural hearing loss, prevalence rate, pure-tone audiometry, HbA1c


*Visual Abtracts prepared by Dr. Jerico Gutierrez

Background. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a form of diabetic neuropathy. Its prevalence rate varies from 21.7-73.3% among different populations. The association of this complication with long-term glycemic control has not been described extensively.

Objectives. The study aims to determine the prevalence of SNHL in Filipino patients with diabetes consulting in a tertiary hospital; and to determine the association of SNHL with the degree of blood sugar control as measured by the mean hemoglobin bA1c (HbA1c) for the last five years.

Methodology. A cross-sectional study of 128 patients in a tertiary hospital was done. Patients were recruited via stratified random sampling with the different clinics as the stratifying variable. They underwent physical examination and pure tone audiometry (PTA) to detect presence of SNHL and presence of distal peripheral neuropathy. Chart review was done to gather the HbA1c levels for the last five years, as well as data on the presence of retinopathy and nephropathy. The average HbA1c levels, and other clinical and demographic factors and their association with SNHL were analyzed using logistic regression.

Results. The prevalence of SNHL among patients with diabetes is 45.31%. Glycemic control does not seem to be associated with SNHL (p value 0.451, OR 1.447). Age was found to be significantly associated with SNHL (p value=0.046, OR=1.035). Among patients age 60 years old and below, retinopathy was significantly associated with SNHL (p value 0.023, OR=3.564). Multivariate analysis did not show any significant predictor for SNHL. There was no observed difference in the proportion of patients with SNHL among males (48.94%) compared to females (43.21%), p value of 0.530. A more advanced age is associated with SNHL among males (p value 0.024, OR=1.095) and a family history of hearing loss is an independent predictor of SNHL (p value 0.047, OR=1.088).

Conclusion. There is a high prevalence rate of SNHL among Filipino patients with diabetes. SNHL does not seem to be associated with glycemic control. Screening for SNHL maybe warranted for patients with diabetes due to its high prevalence rate regardless of glycemic control. Hearing care, focusing on prevention of hearing loss, should be advocated for patients with diabetes mellitus.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Jerico Gutierrez, Philippine General Hospital


Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Department of Medicine

Philippine General Hospital


Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, van Haeften TW. Type 2 diabetes: Principles of pathogenesis and therapy. Lancet. 2005;365(9467):1333–46.

Yueh B, Shapiro N, MacLean C, Shekelle P. Screening and management of adult hearing loss in primary care. JAMA. 2003;289(15):1977-85. 10.1001/jama.289.15.1976.

Kakarlapudi V, Sawyer R, Staecker H. The effect of diabetes on sensorineural hearing loss. Otol Neurotol. 2003;24(3):382–6. PMID:12806288.

Aladag I, Eyibilen A, Güven M, Atiş Ö, Erkokmaz Ü. Role of oxidative stress in hearing impairment in patients with type two diabetes mellitus. J Laryngol Otol. 2009;123(9):957–63.

Horikawa C, Kodama S, Tanaka S, Fujihara K, Hirasawa R, Yachi Y, et al. Diabetes and risk of hearing impairment in adults: A metaanalysis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(1):51–8.

Rajendran S, Anandhalakshmi, Mythili B, Viswanatha R. Evaluation of the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4): 982-7

Lerman-Garber I, Cuevas-Ramos D, Valdés S, Enríquez L, Lobato M, Osornio M, et al. Sensorineural hearing loss—A common finding in early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2012;18(4).1-9.

Bainbridge KE, Hoffman HJ, Cowie CC. Risk factors for hearing impairment among U.S. adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1540–5.

Sunkum JK, Pingile S. A clinical study of audiological profile in diabetes mellitus patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:875–9. 10.1007/s00405-012-2063-y.

FNRI-DOST. Burden of selected risk factors to non communicable diseases (NCDs) among Filipino adults. Accessed May 17, 2016.

World Health Organization. Accessed August 8, 2014.

Jimeno C, Abad L, Andag-Silva A, Cunanan E, Fernando RE, Fojas M, et al. Philippine Practice Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus: Part 1: Screening and Diagnosis, 2011.

Clark JG. Uses and abuses of hearing loss classification. ASHA. 1981;23(7):493–500. PMID: 7052898.

Mozaffari M, Tajik A, Ariaei N, Ali-Ehyaii F, Behnam H. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss among non-elderly people.East Mediterr Health J. 2010; 16(9): 987-52. PMID: 21218721.

Nash SD, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BEK, Nieto FJ, Huang GH, et al. The prevalence of hearing impairment and associated risk factors: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137(5):432-9.

De León-Morales LVD, Jáuregui-Renaud K, Garay-Sevilla ME, Hernández-Prado J, Malacara-Hernández, JM. Auditory impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Med Res. 2005;36(5):507–10.

De Moraes Marchiori LL , de Almeida Rego Filho E, Matsuo T. Hypertension as a factor associated with hearing loss. Rev Bras Otorhinolaringol. 2006;72(4):533-40. PMID: 17143434.

Agarwal S, Mishra A, Jagade M, Kasbekar V, Nagle SK. Effects of hypertension on hearing. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013; 65(Suppl 3):614–8.

Austin DF, Konrad-Martin D, Griest S, McMillan GP, McDermott D, Fausti S. Diabetes-related changes in hearing. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(9):1788-96. 10.1002/lary.20570.

Akinpelu OV, Mujica-Mota M, Daniel SJ. Is type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with alterations in hearing? A systematic review and metaanalysis. Laryngoscope. 2014;124(3):767–76.

Srinivas CV, Shyamala V, Shiva Kumar BR. Clinical study to evaluate the association between sensorineural hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in poorly controlled patients whose HbA1c >8. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;68(2):191-5.



How to Cite

Gutierrez, J., Jimeno, C., Labra, P. J., Grullo, P. E., & Cruz, T. L. (2016). Prevalence of Sensorineural Hearing Loss and its Association with Glycemic Control in Filipino Patients with Diabetes at the Philippine General Hospital. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 31(2), 137. Retrieved from



Original Articles