Association of Vitamin D levels on the Clinical Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 in a Tertiary Hospital




Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, COVID-19


Objectives. This study aimed to compare the severity of COVID-19, inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes among patients with normal and subnormal levels of Vitamin D.

Methodology. This is a retrospective cohort study of 135 patients admitted in a tertiary hospital for COVID-19. Patients were grouped according to their Vitamin D level. Primary outcome measure was the composite of all-cause mortality and morbidity. Other outcome measures determined were the comparison among the groups on the severity of COVID-19 infection, changes in inflammatory parameters, length of hospital stay and duration of respiratory support.

Results. There was a significant trend of higher ICU admission (p=0.024), mortality (p=0.006) and poor clinical outcome (p=0.009) among the Vitamin D deficient group. No significant difference was found for most of the inflammatory parameters, duration of hospital stay and respiratory support. Overall, patients with deficient, but not insufficient Vitamin D level had 6 times higher odds of composite poor outcome than those with normal Vitamin D (crude OR=5.18, p=0.003; adjusted OR=6.3, p=0.043).

Conclusion. The inverse relationship between Vitamin D level and poor composite outcome observed in our study suggests that low Vitamin D may be a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients admitted for COVID-19.


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Author Biographies

Margarita Katrina Amor Tan, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Philippines

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Rebecca Lim Alba, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Philippines

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Kingbherly Li, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Philippines

Section of Infectious Diseases


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How to Cite

Tan, M. K. A., Lim Alba, R., & Li, K. (2023). Association of Vitamin D levels on the Clinical Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 in a Tertiary Hospital. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 38(1), 81–89.



Original Articles