Metabolic Syndrome in Obese and Normal Weight Myanmar Children


  • Khin Than Yee Biochemistry Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Theingi Thwin Nutrition Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Ei Ei Khin Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine (1), Yangon, Myanmar
  • Ko Ko Zaw Medical Statistics Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Nwe Nwe Oo Biochemistry Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Aye Myint Oo Blood Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Lwin Zar Maw Biochemistry Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • May Thu Kyaw Biochemistry Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)
  • Nwe Ni Aung Biochemistry Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar)


Objectives. To estimate the frequency of Metabolic Syndrome (MS in Myanmar obese children and to determine the risk factors associated with MS in obese children comparing with normal weight children.


Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the risk factors for metabolic syndrome between normal and obese children by using the pediatric definition for metabolic syndrome [International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 2007]. Twenty-three obese children (BMI, ≥ 97th percentile) and 23 normal weight children (BMI, < 85th percentile) aged 5-12 years were included in the study. Blood pressure, body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), fasting triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations were determined.


Results. Based on the IDF pediatric criteria, 9 obese children (39.1%) had metabolic syndrome while no normal weight child had metabolic syndrome. Ten (43.5%) normal weight children and 3 (13.0%) obese children had at least one risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. Central obesity (WC ³ 90th percentile for age and sex), the most common risk factor, was observed in 25 children (54.4% of the total population).


Conclusion. This study highlights the need for early recognition of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in all children to halt the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life.


Download data is not yet available.


Latt TS, Ko K., Aye TT, Thidar A, Khin EE. A summary of the Myanmar clinical practice guidelines for the management of obesity. JAFES. 2011; 26 (2): 105-109.

Cinaz P, Bideci A. Pediatric Endocrinology, 1st Ed, Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Auxology Society Publishments: Obesity. Ankara: Krenralkan Press, 2003.

Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Path analysis of metabolic syndrome in black versus white children, adolescents and adults: The Bogalus Heart Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2008; 18(2): 85-91.

Reaven GM. Banting Lecture 1988: Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988; 37(12): 1595-1607.

Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part I: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998; 15(7): 539-553.

Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol evaluation program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001, 285(19): 2486-2497.

Alberti KGMM, Zimmet PZ, Shaw JE. The metabolic syndrome- A new world-wide definition from the International Diabetes Federation Consensus. Lancet. 2005; 366(9491): 1059-1062.

Zimmet P, Alberti G, Kaufman F, et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: The IDF consensus. Diabetes Voice. 2007; 52(4): 29-32.

Morrison JA, Friedman LA, Wang P, Glueck CJ. Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts adult metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus 25 to 30 years later. J Pediatr. 2008; 152(2): 201-206.

Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. WHO, 2011.

Sung RYT, So H-K, Choi K-C, et al. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio of Hong Kong Chinese children. BMC Public Health. 2008; 8: 324.

Yoshinaga M, Tanaka S, Shimago A, et al. Metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Japanese children. Obes Res. 2005; 13(7): 1135-1139.

Druet C, Dabbast M, Baltakse V, et al. Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in obese French children. Clin Endocrinol. 2006; 64(6): 672-678.

Quah YV, PohBK.,Ismail MN. Metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria in a sample of normal weight and obese school children. Mal J Nutr. 2010; 16(2): 207-217.

Dubose KD, Stewart EE, Charbonneau SR, Mayo MS, Donnelly JE. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in elementary school children. Acta Pediatr. 2006; 95(8): 1005-1011.

Braunschweig CL, Gomez S, Liang H, et al. Obesity and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome among low-income, urban, African-American school children: The rule rather than the exception? Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81(5): 970-975.

Cruz ML, Weigensberg MJ, Haung TTK, et al. The metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic youth and the role of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89(1): 108-113.

Viner RM, Segal TY, Lichtarowicz-Krynska E, Hindmarsh P. Prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome in obesity. Arch Dis Child. 2005; 90(1): 10-14.

Caceres M, Teran CG, Rodriguez S, Medina M. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity. BMC Pediatr. August 12, 2008; 8:31.

Sen Y, Kandemir N, Alikasifoglu A, Gonc N, Ozon A. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: The role of the severity of obesity. Eur J Pediatr.2008; 167(10): 1183-1189.

Cizmecioglu FM, Hatun S, Kalaca S. Metabolic syndrome in obese Turkish children and adolescents: comparison of two diagnostic models. Turk J Pediatr. 2008; 50(4): 359-365.

Wee BS, Poh BK, Bulgiba A, et al. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study. BMC Public Health.2011; 11: 333.

Esmailzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Etemandi A, Azizi F. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Iranian adolescents. Obesity. 2006; 14(3): 377-382.

Adam JMF.Metaboliksindrom. Bandung: Medical School, Padjajaran University, 2006.

Saad R, Gungor N, Arslanian S. Progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in young girls: Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp technique and surrogate estimates. Pediatr Diabetes. 2005; 6(2): 95-99.

Maffeis C, Pietrobelli A, Grezzani A, Provera S, Tato L. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children. Obes Res. 2001; 9(3): 179-187.

Lee S, Bacha I, Arslanian SA. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipid components of the metabolic syndrome. J Pediatr. 2006; 149(6): 809-816.

Liu A, Hills AP, Hu X, et al. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10: 82.

Poh BK, Jannah AN, Chong LK, et al. Waist circumference percentile curves for Malaysian children and adolescents aged 6.0-16.9 years. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011; 6(3-4): 229-235.

Castillo EH, Borges G, Talavera JO, et al. Body mass index and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among children and adolescents in two Mexican population. J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40(6): 521-526.

Kelishadi R, Gouya MM, Adeli K, et al. Factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in a national sample of youths: CASPIAN study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008; 18(7): 461-470.



How to Cite

Than Yee, K., Thwin, T., Khin, E. E., Zaw, K. K., Oo, N. N., Oo, A. M., Zar Maw, L., Thu Kyaw, M., & Ni Aung, N. (2014). Metabolic Syndrome in Obese and Normal Weight Myanmar Children. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, 28(1), 52. Retrieved from



Original Articles