Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Community Health Workers in Selected Villages in the Philippines
Keywords:community health workers, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases
Objective. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome among community health workers (CHWs) in selected villages in the Philippines. It also determined the association of urbanization and socio-demographic characteristics with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome among CHWs.
Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among CHWs who were actively rendering service from selected communities at the time of the study. Standardized interviews were conducted and clinical measurements were collected.
Results. Of the total of 457 CHWs who participated, 96% were females with a median age of 50 years. The prevalence of hypertension in this population was 32.4%. Hypertension was found to be associated with older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.3, 95% CI: 3.2 to 8.8, pp=0.002) and alcohol consumption (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.0, pp=0.002), and those who spent at least 5 hours a day in sedentary activities (aOR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 12.7, p
Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent among CHW participants, with obesity, hypertension and low LDL-c as the most common components present. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population was not found to be significantly different between rural and urban areas after adjusting for other factors.
World Health Organization. Strengthening the Performance of Community Health Workers in Primary Health Care. Report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1989. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/
Republic Act No. 7883: Barangay Health Workers’ Benefit and Incentives Act of 1995. https://pcw.gov.ph/law/republic-act-7883.
Taburnal MV. Barangay health workers’ level of competence. Asia Pac High Educ Res J. 2017;4(1):1-15. http://po.pnuresearchportal.org/ejournal/index.php/apherj/article/view/437/241.
Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health. 2005;4(1):2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15651987. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC546417. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-4-2.
Barangay Health Volunteers.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Senate Bill 2219: An Act to Improve and to Promote Quality Delivery of Health Services in Barangays, Enacting the Barangay Health Workers and Services Reform Act of 2014. https://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspxcongress=16&q=SBN-2219.
Lehmann U, Sanders D. Community health workers: What do we know about them?The state of the evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes of using community health workers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007. https://www.who.int/hrh/
Tai ES, Poulton R, Thumboo J, et al. An update on cardiovascular disease epidemiology in South East Asia. Rationale and design of the LIFE course study in CARdiovascular disease Epidemiology (LIFECARE). CVD Prev Control. 2009;4:93-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvdpc.2009.02.003.
Whitworth JA, World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1983-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14597836. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200311000-00002.
World Health Organization. Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycemia: Report of a WHO/IDF Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006. https://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/Definition and diagnosis of diabetes_new.pdf.
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106(25):3143-421. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12485966.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: A joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association;World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120(16):1640-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805654. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644.
World Health Organization. The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and Its Treatment. Sydney: Health Communications Australia Pty Limited, 2000. http://www.wpro.who.int/nutrition/documents/docs/Redefiningobesity.pdf.
World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/
global-PA-recs-2010.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2005.
StataCorp. Stata© Statistical Software: Release 14. 2015.
Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 8th National Nutrition Survey:“Juan Mission for a Well-Nourished Nation.” In: 2nd National Nutrition Summit, 2014. http://22.214.171.124/NNS/8thNNS.pdf.
Martniuk AL, Lee CM, Lawes CM et al. Hypertension: its prevalence and population-attributable fraction for mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region. J Hypertens. 2007;25(1):73-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17143176. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328010775f.
Ulasi II, Ijoma CK, Onodugo OD. A community-based study of hypertension and cardio-metabolic syndrome in semi-urban and rural communities in Nigeria. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20302648. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858142. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-71.
Philippine Commission on Women. Factsheets on Filipino Women. 2017. https://www.pcw.gov.ph/sites/default/files/
Najafizada SA, Labonté R, Bourgeault IL. Community health workers of Afghanistan: a qualitative study of a national program. Confl Health. 2014;8(26). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25904976.
Eberhardt MS, Pamuk ER. The importance of place of residence:examining health in rural and nonrural areas. Am J Public Health.2004;94(10):1682-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15451731.
Abdul-Razak S, Daher AM, Ramli AS et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and socio demographic determinants of hypertension in Malaysian adults. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):351. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27097542. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3008-y.
Bansal SK, Saxena V, Kandpal SD, Gray WK, Walker RW, Goel D. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertension risk factors in a rural Indian community: A prospective door-to-door study. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2012;3(2):117-23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22629029. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354454.https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-3583.95365.
Joshi MD, Ayah R, Njau EK et al. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya: A population-based survey. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1177. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407513. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246542. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1177.
Kishore J, Gupta N, Kohli C, Kumar N. Prevalence of hypertension and determination of its risk factors in Rural Delhi. Int J Hypertens. 2016;Article ID 78962595. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7962595.
Lipowicz A, Lopuszanska M. Marital differences in blood pressure and the risk of hypertension among Polish men. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20(5):421-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-005-1752-x.
Redondo-Sendino Á, Guallar-Castillón P, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Relationship between social network and hypertension in older people in Spain. Rev Española Cardiol. 2005;58(11):1294-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1885-5857(06)60417-9.
Kollia N, Panagiotakos DB, Georgousopoulou E et al. Exploring the association between low socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy Greeks, in the years of financial crisis (2002-2012): The ATTICA study. Int J Cardiol. 2016;223:758-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.294.
Nguyen CT, Pham NM, Lee AH, Binns CW. Prevalence of and risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Vietnam. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2015;27(6):588-600. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187848. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539515595860.
Kakar ZA, Siddiqui MA, Amin RA. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in adult population of South Asia. Clinical Medicine and Diagnostics. 2013;3(2):18-28. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.cmd.20130302.02.
Nguyen HN, Fujiyoshi A, Abbott RD, Miura K. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian countries. Circ J. 2013;77(12):2851-9. https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-13-1292.
Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part I: General considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation. 2001;104(22):2746-53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11723030. https://doi.org/10.1161/hc4601.099487.
How to Cite
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International. (full license at this link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode).
To obtain permission to translate/reproduce or download articles or use images FOR COMMERCIAL REUSE/BUSINESS PURPOSES from the Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, kindly fill in the Permission Request for Use of Copyrighted Material and return as PDF file to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
A written agreement shall be emailed to the requester should permission be granted.